Prevalence of Cardio-metabolic Risk Factors: A Cross-sectional Study among Employed Adults in Urban Delhi, India LC01-LC04
Dr. Bani Tamber Aeri,
F4-Hauz Khas Enclave, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India.
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Introduction: Many studies have shown increasing prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) among employed adults. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) which is a predictor of increasing CVD is a cluster of risk factors like central obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension. Heredity, poor dietary choice, unhealthy lifestyle, job stress are some of the causes responsible for increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk among employed adults.
Aim: To measure the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among employed adults in urban Delhi, India.
Materials and Methods: Study design was cross-sectional with purposive sampling of 200 apparently healthy adults (both males and females) working in urban Delhi, India. Sociodemographic profile, anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist circumference) and biochemical measurements (lipid profile and fasting glucose) and blood pressure were documented. Physical activity pattern was assessed using WHO Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis for associating cardio-metabolic risk factors among adults were performed using the SPSS 18.0 software.
Results: High prevalence of metabolic syndrome among males (66.6%) and females (57.2%) of 25 to 45 years of age was reported. Overall prevalence of MS was 62% among the study population. Central obesity (50.5%, p<0.04), low HDL (62%, p<0.05), hypertriglyceridemia (56.5%, p<0.00), hypertension (39%, p<0.00) and high fasting glucose (10.5%, p<0.76) were the most common abnormalities among males and females. Incidence of high BMI (54.5%, p<0.05) was positively correlated with MS risk factors. Associated cardio-metabolic risk factors besides MS were family history (43.5%, p<0.72), smoking (17.6%, p<0.001), drinking (18%, p<0.001) and physical inactivity. It was found that 32.8% of the subjects had low, 60.4% had moderate and only 7.0% had high physical activity.
Conclusion: Employed adults in urban Delhi, India are at high risk of developing CVD due to high prevalence of MS and high Body Mass Index (BMI).