Prevalence and Severity of Depression in a Pakistani Population with at least One Major Chronic DiseaseCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Ansab Godil,
Flat-005, Aman Towers, Plot-248/249, Issedas Street, Garden East, Soldier Bazar, Karachii-74550, Sindh, Pakistan.
Introduction: Diabetes, anaemia, hypertension and asthma are major contributors to morbidity in our society. Depression is the commonest psychological malady diagnosed in hospital settings. There tends to be some overlap between certain chronic systemic illnesses and depressive disorders, and this point towards the need to determine relationships between them, if any.
Aim: To determine the prevalence and compare the severity of depression among individuals diagnosed with four of the most common chronic diseases in our community.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among patients with chronic diseases visiting a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan from August 2015 to August 2016. The Beck Depression Inventory-II*, a 21-item self-report instrument was used to assess the severity of depression. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test while intergroup comparisons were performed using one way ANOVA test. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds of Category B depression (moderate and severe levels of depression) in chronic diseases.
Results: The prevalence of anaemia, hypertension, diabetes and asthma was 90%, 47%, 26% and 23% respectively. Predictors of Category B depression were anaemia (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.30-13.56) and diabetes (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.09-3.77). Asthma predicted Category B depression in males (OR=1.26, 95% CI: 0.29-5.42) but not in females (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.39-1.52). Individuals with hypertension were less likely to report Category B depression than non-hypertensive (OR=0.72, 95% CI 0.43-1.21). Female gender had a greater influence to develop Category B depression than males (OR= 2.96, 95% CI: 1.93-4.55).
Conclusion: Our study points towards a strong correlation between depression and chronic diseases especially anaemia and diabetes. This cautions medical practitioners against treatment of depressive disorders and chronic diseases as separate, independent entities.
Anaemia, Asthma, Diabetes, Hypertension
Ansab Godil, Muhammad Saad Ali Mallick, Arsalan Majeed Adam,
Amna Haq, Akash Khetpal, Razna Afzal, et al.. PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY OF DEPRESSION IN A PAKISTANI POPULATION WITH AT LEAST ONE MAJOR CHRONIC DISEASE. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 August [cited: 2017 Nov 21 ]; 11:OC05-OC10. Available from
Date of Submission: Feb 15, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Mar 31, 2017
Date of Acceptance: May 11, 2017
Date of Publishing: Aug 01, 2017
Financial OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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