Prevalence of Refractive Errors and Colour Blindness in School Going Children of Wardha Tehsil: A Prospective Study NC01-NC04
F12, Shalinata PG Girls Hostel, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Subnormal vision in childhood affects performance in school or day to day activity and has a poor effect on the future life of a child. Refractive errors are one of the most common reasons and is the most easily correctable cause of vision loss as the spectacles are inexpensive, non-invasive, and useful.
Aim: To determine the Prevalence of Refractive error and Colour Blindness in school going children of Wardha District.
Materials and Methods: A Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 co-educational randomly selected schools of Wardha. History taking, torchlight examination was performed followed by recording of visual aquity by Snellenâ€™s chart and colour vision by Ishihara 38 plate edition. Children with visual acquity less than 6/9 were dilated using 2% homatropine eye drops, complete mydriasis was achieved following which retinoscopy was done. The Statistical analysis was performed by using â€śdescriptive and inferential statisticsâ€ť using â€śchi-square testâ€ť and software used in the analysis were â€śSPSS 24.0 versionâ€ť and â€śGraphPad Prism 7.0 versionâ€ť and the p-value of <0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: Children in the study group were in the range of twelve to fifteen years. About 55.49 percent of the children were males in the study group, 88.67% belonged to upper high socioeconomic status. Only 18.61% of children had a refractive error. Prevalence of myopia was 59.01% followed by astigmatism (26.71%), and hypermetropia (14.29%). The number of cases of refractive errors increased with advancing age. There was no significant association between gender and refractive error. About 60.87% of the children with refractive errors complained of blurring of vision and 28.57% complained of headache. A total of 85.75% of the children with refractive errors in present study were not wearing spectacles. It was observed that 1.62% had colour blindness. Among protans, 1.045% were male, and 0.35% were females. Among deutans 0.23% were male children.
Conclusion: Inspite of refractive error being reversible cause of blindness, we see that uncorrected refractive error is still rampant, even in areas with families of good socio-economic status. This is alarming and it highlights the need to strengthen the existing screening programs.